What does ‘what in tarnation’ mean?
The idiom "what in tarnation" is an exclamatory phrase used to express surprise, confusion, or disbelief. It is a colloquial way of asking "what in the world" or "what on earth." The word "tarnation" is a euphemism for "damnation," adding a touch of emphasis or mild profanity to the exclamation. The idiom is typically used humorously or playfully and is often associated with rural or Southern American dialects.
The idiom "what in tarnation" has a distinct American origin and is widely used in the United States. It serves as an expression of surprise, bewilderment, or frustration. The word "tarnation" originated from the word "darnation," a euphemistic alteration of "damnation," which itself stems from the Latin word "damnatio" meaning condemnation. The usage of "tarnation" can be traced back to the early 19th century, with "what in tarnation" emerging sometime later.
The phrase gained popularity in the mid-20th century through its frequent use in Western films and literature, contributing to its recognition and adoption by a broader audience. It is often associated with cowboys and characters from the American Old West, further cementing its place in popular culture.
One related idiom to "what in tarnation" is "I'll be damned." This expression shares the element of surprise or disbelief. While "what in tarnation" is more lighthearted and playful, "I'll be damned" conveys a stronger sense of astonishment or realization. Both idioms serve as emphatic reactions to unexpected or extraordinary circumstances, capturing the speaker's incredulity.
Another related idiom is "what the Devil." Like "what in tarnation," this phrase expresses astonishment or confusion. It is often used in situations where the speaker is caught off guard or faced with something unexpected. While "what in tarnation" maintains a friendly and informal tone, "what the Devil" may come across as more forceful or exasperated. Both idioms share a common function of conveying surprise or perplexity.
A similar expression is "why on Earth." This idiomatic phrase shares the element of confusion and is used to express disbelief or puzzlement. Like "what in tarnation," it is a lighthearted way of capturing the speaker's astonishment. While "why on Earth" may convey a slightly stronger sense of incredulity, both idioms serve to express surprise or confusion in a conversational manner.
"fucking hell" is another related idiom that expresses extreme surprise, frustration, or shock. Unlike "what in tarnation," this phrase is considered vulgar and should be used with caution. It carries a more intense and explicit tone, emphasizing the speaker's strong reaction to a situation. While both idioms convey surprise or disbelief, "fucking hell" is much stronger in its expression of emotions.
"in heaven's name" is an idiom similar to "what in tarnation" in that it conveys incredulousness or confusion. It is a milder phrase compared to "what in tarnation" but still shares the element of surprise or bewilderment. "In heaven's name" may be used when the speaker is seeking an explanation for something puzzling or when expressing frustration. Both idioms serve as exclamatory expressions to convey surprise or astonishment.
Over time, "what in tarnation" has become a colloquialism deeply ingrained in American English, particularly in rural or southern regions. Its usage is predominantly informal and finds its place in casual conversations and literature.
While the exact origin of the idiom remains unclear, it is undeniably rooted in American linguistic history. The phrase has managed to endure and adapt to the changing language landscape, continuing to be used today in various contexts. Its longevity speaks to its cultural significance and the enduring appeal of colorful idiomatic expressions.
Here are three examples of how the idiom "what in tarnation" can be used in a sentence:
- "What in tarnation is that noise outside?" (expressing surprise or confusion about a loud or strange noise)
- "What in tarnation is going on here?" (expressing frustration or disbelief about a chaotic or confusing situation)
- "What in tarnation are you thinking?" (expressing astonishment or disapproval towards someone's actions or decisions)